HIGHLIGHTS

AWF was formed at Osaka, Japan on 16th July 2004.

Aim of AWF is the betterment of welding communities in Asia in terms of economic technological growth.

13 countries in Asia are the members of AWF

AWF meets three to four times in a year.
About AWF

The ASIAN WELDING FEDERATION (AWF) is a federation formed by the Asian Welding Societies/institutes/associations.

The AWF is a non-profit making organization devoted to the improvement and promotion of welding technology through the exchange of scientific information and knowledge for the betterment of the welding communities in Asia in terms of economics and technological progress and growth.

To promote the technical advancement of the science, art, process, work, occupation, practice and standard of Welding in all its branches and uses and of all allied ancillary or complementary sciences, arts, processes and occupations and the attainment of knowledge to conduct researches and experiments therein respectively. To disseminate, extent, impart and promote knowledge of all systems of welding and their respective application to industrial purposes and to promote proficiency therein and to consider, originate and promote reforms and improvements in methods of Welding and the use and application of Welding into and for industrial or commercial endeavor.

The main objectives are as follows:

Standardization of welding skill and qualification

    Promoting more exchange of scientific and technical information in welding and transfer of welding knowledge and skills
    Develop a formal structure to promote and guide AWF members towards a common welding standard
    Defining common guidelines for the education, training, qualification and certficiation of personnel in welding and its related technology
    Increasing welding qualification and efficiency In meeting these objectives, the AWF will use various working units, sub-committees or groups and forms of activities deemed necessary, independently or in co-operation with other bodies having similar or complementary goals.

The Charter of the Federation is attached for more detail activties of AWF. The AWF membership is growing since the formation in year 2004. Currently we have members from China, Indonesia, Iran, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar,Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

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Lof ArticlesSlideShow Module

Vibration During Welding At Power Plant (Steam Turbine)
PT. Semen Tonasa – Sulawesi Selatan

ABSTRACT WELDABILITY OF MATERIALS : TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS * High strength to weight ratio
* Corrosion resistance
* Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. KEYWORDS : Weld Metal Porosity, Embrittlement, Contamination Cracking, Vibration During Welding, Condensate, Tie Rod, Repair Welding, Conductivity. Introductions MATERIAL TYPES ALLOY GROUPINGS


  • Titanium; Commercially Pure (98-99,5 % Ti) or strengthned by small additions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and iron. The alloys are readily fusion weldable.
  • ALPHA ALLOYS : This are largely single phase alloys containing up to 7% alluminum and a small amount (<0.3%) of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The alloys are fusion welded in the annealed condition.
  • ALPHA-BETA ALLOYS : This have a characteristic two phase, microstructure formed by the addition of up 6% alluminium and varying amount of beta forming constituens - vadium, chromium and molybdenum. The alloys are readily welded in the annealed condition.


FILLER ALLOYS * Titanium and its alloys can be welded using a matching filler. Composition; Compositions are given in
* The American Welding Society Specification AWS A5.16-2004.

WELD IMPERFECTIONS

  • TIG and PLASMA processes, with argon or argon-helium shielding gas, are used for welding thin section components, typically <10 mm.
  • The most likely imperfections in fusion welds are :
    • - WELD METAL POROSITY
    • - EMBRITTLEMENT
    • - CONTAMINATION CRACKING (Hydrogen Cracking)

WELD METAL POROSITY

  • Porosity arises when gas bubbles are trapped between dendrites during solidification (in Titanium, Hydrogen from moisture in the arc environment or contamination on the filler and parent metal surface, is the most likely cause of porosity)
  • ACTION : Cleaned by Pickling (HF-HNO3), light grindingor Stainless Steel brushing in the join surface area.

EMBRITTLEMENT

  • Can be cause by weld metal contamination by either gas absorption or by dissolving contaminants such as dust (iron particles) on the surface. At temperatures above 500 deg. C, Titanium has a very high affinity for oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.
  • The weld pool, heat affected zone and cooling weld bead must be protected from oxidation by an inert gas / back up gas (Argon or Helium).
  • The color can indicate whether the shielding maximum. SILVER or STRAW color shows satisfactory gas shielding was achieved. DARK BLUE may be acceptable. Light blue, grey and white usually unacceptable (oxygen contamination).
  • For small components, an efficient gas shield can be achieved by welding in a totally enclosed chamber, fill with shielding gas. Oxygen level should be reduced to approximately 40 ppm before striking the arc on scrap titanium and <20 ppm before welding the actual component.
  • In tube welding, a fully enclosed head is equally effective in shielding the weld area and is preferable to orbital welding equipment in which the gas nozzle must be rotated around the tube.
  • When welding out in the open, the torch is fitted with a trailling shield to protect the hot weld bead while cooling.

CONTENT

CASE STUDY / WELDING REPAIR Power Plant at BTG Semen Tonasa - Pangkep Sulawesi Selatan is a coal steam turbine.
The condensate made from SS 410 with titanium lining (On tube sheet).
Join on Tube Sheet and Tie Rod is crack and sea water come inside to the boiler.
Problem..! So… we did repair welding on join tube sheet and tie rod.

 

CONTAMINATION CRACKING

  • If iron particles are present on the component surface, they dissolve in the weld metal reducing corrosion resistance and, at a sufficiently high iron content, causing embritlement. Iron particles are equally detrimental in the HAZ where local melting of the particles from pockets of titanium-iron eutectic. Micro cracking may occur but it is more likely that the iron-rich pockets will become preferential sites for corrosion.
  • Particular attention should be paid to separating titanium from steel fabrications, preferably by designating a specially reserved clean area. Welders should guard against embedding steel particles in to the surface of the material by :
    • - Avoiding steel fabrication operations near titanium components.
    • - Covering components to avoid airborne dust particles settling onthe surface.
    • - Not using tools, including wire brushes, previously used for steel.
    • - Scratch brushing the join area immediately before welding.
    • - Not handling the cleaned component with dirty gloves.
    • - To avoid corrosion cracking and minimize the risk of embritlement through iron contamination, it is best practice to fabricate titanium in a specially reserved clean area.

 

FILLER TITANIUM

Titanium 6Al-4V AWS Class ER Ti-5

Features

  • High strength to 600oF
  • Excellent general corrosion resistance
  • High strength-to-weight ratio

Applications

  • Gas turbine compressor dishes and blades
  • Airframe structural components (aircraft)
  • Chemical process equipment

 

 

 

Performance Profile

Ti 6Al-4V is the most widely used of all the alpha beta titanium alloys. Itmay be heat treated for high strength in welded construction at service temperatures through 600oF. Harden ability is limited and section over about one inch may not develop full properties. For cryogenic applications the extra low interstitial grade ELI (UNS R 56401) is preferred.

Annealing bar and forging is done at 1275-1325 oF 2hr air cool. Solution treat 1675-1725 oF 1hr water quench. Precipitation treat 975-1025 oF 3hr air cool. For increased fracture toughness but low tensile strength precipitation treat 1150 oF 4hr air cool.

Welding is by GTAW, direct current electrode negative, ¾ “ gas cup and gas lens. Limit electrode extension to 3/8 “. Inert gas shielding is required on all areas hotter than 800 oF. That is in addition to remarry torch shielding, trailing shield is required to protect the cooling weld metal, and back up shielding is required. Internal spaces should be purged 10 times the enclosed volume. Shield all tack welds.

Shielding and purge gas must be argon or argon helium mixture, NEVER nitrogen. Filler metal AWS A5.16 ERTi-5 may be used. ERTi-5 ELI preferred for greater toughness.

 

 

1.Sheet : Regular anneal furnace coolDuplex anneal. Mill anneal + 1435 oF, 15 minutes air cool. Triplex anneal. Mill anneal + 1850 oF, 5 minutes air cool, + 1375, 15 minutes air cool.

Bar and forgings :

Duplex anneal 1650-1850, 1 hour air cool + 1000oF -1100 oF, 8-24 hours air cool.

2.Bar duplex anneal : Mill anneal + 1000o – 1200oF, ½-6 hours air cool.

3.Anneal furnace cool at 300oF per hour maximum to 1000 oF to 1050 oF.

4.Stress relief may be accomplished at 800oF-15 hours, 850oF-5 hours, at 900oF-1 hour and 950 oF - ½ hour.

5.For 100% stress relief, 1000 oF -50 hours or 1200 oF -5 hours for 50% relief, 1000 oF -5 hours or 1100 oF – ½ hour.

6.Furnace cool at 300oF maximum from anneal temperature for maximum improved by holding at annealing temperature 24 hours.

 

7.Slow cool to 1000 o -1050 oF maximum from upper annealing temperature.

8.Anneal sheet at temperature for 20 minutes. For bar hold at anneal temperature 2 hours.

 

 .

 

Tie Rod Titanium 6 Al 4 V

 

Tie rod titanium condensate is support at tube sheet with loaded sea water = 250m3/minute.

 

 

 

Prepare before welding (Turbine off)

    1. Clean up join tube sheet and tie rod, by light grinding (Blending) and Stainless Steel brush.
    2. Make V groove on crack at join tube sheet & tie rod.
    3. Welding Process :
      • Welding machine inverter ARCMART DC 16li.
      • Ampere 80A DC Negative.
      • Tungsten Thor 2% ø 1.6 mm with trailing torch.
      • Argon Gas, HP with out back up, flow 15 LPM
      • Filler AMS 4954/ER Ti-5 ø 1.6 mm
    4. Test : Penetrant Test (P.T)

PENETRANT TEST (P.T)

After welding and cooling down, color on HAZ is looked silver (shielding gas maximum) Penetrant Test : accepted (No crack or porosity)

 

FUNGTIONAL TEST

Turbine on, water conductivity at condensate and hot well 70. When broken! Water conductivity 900. (Sea water conductivity 64,000).

Recommended for boiler <10, during operation before crack on join tube sheet & tie rod=8, After first repair conductivity 70…. Not accepted. After 2x24 hours… conductivity up to 4,000 and than shut down the turbine…!!

 

 

SECOND PREPAIRE (Turbine … Start Up)

1.Re-cleaned up on tube sheet & tie rod.

2.Re-make V groove on tube sheet & tie rod.

3.Re-welding process:

  • a.Welding machine inverter ARCMART DC 161i.
  • b.Ampere 80A DC Negative.
  • c.Tungsten Thor 2% ø 1.6 mm with out trailing / with gas lens.
  • d.Argon Gas HP with out back up with flow 20 LPM.
  • e. Filler AMS 4954 / ER Ti-5ø 1.6 mm.

 

 

VACUUM TEST

84 Bar vacuum test with water soap… No broken (accepted)

PENETRANT TEST

On HAZ color… SILVER.

Penetrant test… No Crack or porosity.

FUNGTIONAL TEST

After 2x24 hours… Turbine running, conductivity=2.4…very good

Electric power connect to transmission.

 

Root pass… RPM 1000 ( Start up)

Filling …… RPM 2000 ( Start up)

Capping …. RPM 3000 (Running)

CONCLUSION :

Clean , clean and clean …is very important

Shield, shield and shield …is very important

Vibration During Welding is a way to the good welding of Titanium

REFERENCES

  • Welding hand book Metals and Their Weld ability Section Four Sixth Edition American Welding Society 1972 chapter 73.
  • More than 20 years experienced in welding.


SUKARDI

www.arcmartindonesia.com

The Japan International Welding Show 2012 (organized by the Japan Welding Engineering Society and Sanpo Publications Inc.) will take place at Intex Osaka, in Suminoe-ku, Osaka, for four days from April 11 to 14, 2012.

Extending the theme of the previous year’s Tokyo event, the show will also feature a “Welding Promenade” to foster exchanges between the Asian countries, as well as to facilitate the exchange of information. The principal objectives of the Welding Promenade are to help establish a single, common welding market in Asia, and to create business networks between Japan and other Asian countries. This will be accomplished by providing Asian visitors opportunities to learn about Japanese technology, promoting the exchange of information between visitors from various countries, and fostering closer relationships with International Welding Show exhibitors.

This year’s show is expected to have a particularly strong international flavor because it will be held concurrently with both the Asian Welding Federation (AWF) general and task force meetings, and also due to the large number of exhibiting companies from all over Asia. These factors are expected to play major roles in the creation of a large, common welding market in Asia, which is what Welding Promenade is all about.

This first Welding Promenade was held during the Japan International Welding Show 2010, in Tokyo. In that event, Sanpo Publications brought together a large number of Asian nation dealers and users to help them develop networks among each other while concurrently forming relationship with Japanese manufacturers. This event allowed all parties to get to know each other better, explore needs and offerings, exchange information, and provide products that are appropriate to the particular needs of their respective countries. In addition, to help in establishing technical information service networks, the Welding Promenade also provided a forum for the creation of partnership between Asian countries through its various exhibitions, seminars, and the business matching facility.

Internationally, the welding industry of today is experiencing lively technological development in response to vigorous investment in plants and equipment. In Asian countries, in particular, there is rapid and ongoing progress towards the formation of regional welding markets. To continue enlivening Asian welding industries, it is important to promote greater exchanges of welding technologies, strengthen interpersonal exchanges between persons from various countries, and facilitate exchanges between the relevant industrial bodies of each country. This will allow us to unlock new potentials and explore new ways of addressing the needs of welding-related products and services in Asia.

Looking to the future, if the welding market in Asia becomes more solid and stable, we can expect to see the institution of various cooperation scheme at national levels aimed at nurturing welding industries. These could include the conclusion of cooperation agreements between countries that focus on business matters, as well as research and development.

The AWF was formally established in 2004 when industry representative bodies from various Asian countries met in Philippines. The aim og the federation is the development of Asia’s welding industry. The primary goals of the AWD, as they were stated at the time, were to establish and disseminate a unified personnel certification scheme across Asia for welders, welding engineers, and welding inspectors, as well as to establish a personnel utilization system.

In addition, there were calls for Japan to share technical information, technology, skills, and education and training systems more widely with other countries in Asia, and to provide welding-related companies in the region with assistance, solidarity, and cooperation.

Linking the countries of Asia through welding technology requires the construction of networks that enable countries to exchange information that helps them understand each other’s welding-related needs, as well as the state and conditions of welding industries in their countries. This was the concept behind the launching of Welding Promenade.

As a first step forward linking Japan and other Asia countries through welding technology, it is essential to exchange information, and thus develop business networks, that enable each country to understand each other country’s needs. And this, precisely, is the role of the Welding Promenade at the Japan International Welding Show.

The show is expected to attract dealers and users from around Asia, who view the Welding Promenade as a tool for building their business networks. By utilizing the opportunity to exchange information with manufactures at the show, welding and cutting industry-related users and dealers from all over Asia can be expected to gain improved mutual understandings of each others “seeds and needs”, exchange and offer products and technical information appropriate to the particular needs of their countries, and to build enhanced service networks.

As describe above, Sanpo Publications has commenced registration for exhibitors and those who wish to participate in its “business matching (Visit Scheduler)” service, which is a key feature of the Welding Promenade concept. All exhibiting companies and show visitors are invited to register for the service. As Welding Promenade participants, all those who register will be invited to the welcome reception on the evening of the first day of the event. Based on our focus of creating a single, common market from the Asian welding industry, we look forward to your participation.

 

Training Dual Certification WE and AWE 2011 Indonesia

For further information please visit http://www.sws.org.sg/Default.aspx?tabid=154

As previously reported, the implementation method of the Common Welder Certification Scheme (CWCS) for Asia, which has been a longstanding goal of the Asian Welding Federation (AWF) since its formation, was decided at the 11th AWF Task Force Meeting and General Assembly held in Bangkok, Thailand on November 12 of last year.

As part of this project, the AWF has worked continuously towards the establishment of a common certification system for welding professionals in Asia and has aimed at providing welding-related knowledge, skills, and qualifications to people in Asia in order to support Asian countries and help them to develop. The task force concerned with the CWCS has examined the prevailing conditions and viewpoints of each member country and has conducted extensive discussions taking these into consideration. In this report, we examine the progress of the CWCS implementation scheme in various individual countries (as of December 2012).

Malaysia (Institute of Materials Malaysia: IMM)
In Malaysia, a manpower optimization system (MOS) is already in effect. A total of eight organizations serving as authorized testing centers (ATCs) have entered into contracts with the national oil company, Petronas, in relation to the scheme. Currently, a quality manual for external auditing created by an authorized certification body (ACB) has been submitted and is now being examined by the AWF.

Indonesia (Indonesian Welding Society: IWS)
In addition to implementing training of auditors and evaluators, the IWS is preparing to establish an ACB and ATCs. The next step will be promoting the scheme to companies.

Mongolia (Mongolian Materials Science and Welding Society: MMSWS)
CWCS documentation is being translated into the Mongolian language, and the MMSWS is now ascertaining what Mongolia needs to do while simultaneously forming alliances with other countries. The translation is expected to take one to two years.

Thailand (Thai Welding Society: TWS)
The implementation scheme is being introduce through various meetings with stakeholders. An explanatory meeting regarding the CWCS and MOS with joint participation of the Singapore Welding Society (SWS), TWS, and government officials is planed.

China (Fundamental Industry Training Centre of Tsinghua University, Beijing University of Technology)
China has adopted the International Institute of Welding (IIW) system, so the situation is complex. Although its current skills certification system is different, there is also interest in the CWCS because it offers the promise of lower costs. There is a desire to start the CWCS n a trial basis with small-scale examination centers and training centers.

The Philippines (Philippines Welding Society: PWS)
While the PWS has recently undergone a personnel restructuring, it is also studying the adoption and operation of this scheme. There is a particularly acute need for welders on the island of Mandanao.

Japan (Japan Welding Engineering Society: JWES)
Work has already begun to establish the CWCS within the next two years, if possible. In order to compare and comprehend the differences between the CWCS and Japan’s Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) welding skill examination, which has been used to implement International Organization for Standardization (ISO)9606-1 testing, as well as collect data for implementing ISO9606-1, testing, the certification committees of nine JWES districts conducted their first test trial last year. Within the same fiscal year, a second test trial was conducted. Through these trials, a skills examination is expected to be worked out in detail.

Myanmar (Myanmar Engineering Society: MES)
While the development of welding technology is still immature, there is a large amount of welding-related work ongoing within the country, for example in pipeline laying projects. Currently, the skill level of welders is a problem, so the Ministry of Industry has set up the National Skill Development Authority (NSDA) and has launched a training and certification system for welders. The country has been slow to take up the CWCS initiative, but it is now looking towards creating a plan to promote the CWCS and it is seeking assistance from other countries on the matter.

Singapore (Singapore Welding Society: SWS)
Currently, Singapore has already established examination centers where it conducts welding skill examinations, and the SWS is now looking at the possibility of transitioning welders to the CWCS qualification by means of a transition arrangement (TA). In addition, it is creating a quality manual, and preparing to establish an ACB. It is also encouraging companies to participate in the scheme.

Apart from the CWCS task force, the first meeting of standardization task force was also held at the last Task Force Meeting and General Assembly. The head of the JWES Welding Consumables Division, Tadashi Suzuki, conducted presentations on “establishing common welding standards for AWF members through the introduction of ISO standard” and on “a summary of a welding materials survey in 2012.” In addition, it was officially decided that the task force would be named the “AWF Task Force on Standardization,” with the purpose of providing a forum for jointly holding and managing information on welding-related standards along with the mission of compiling the views of Asia and submitting them to the ISO. Other concrete task force goals include understanding the contents of ISO standards and clarifying any differences between these and the standards of each AWF member country, as well as indentifying issues that may arise when incorporating ISO standards into the domestic standards of each country.

At the next Task Force Meeting and General Assembly (July, 2013), the AWF Task Force in standardization plans to commence the specific examination of ISO 20560:2009 (coated electrodes) and to present reports on the current situation of participating countries with respect to domestic standards for welding materials.

In any case, we can  say that we have taken a solid first step towards fulfilling the AWF mission of (1) establishing and spreading a certification system for welders, welding engineers, welding inspectors, and other welding professionals that is unified and consistent throughout Asia; and (2) towards formulating unified, consistent welding standards throughout Asia that reflect the viewpoints of Asia towards international standards.

  • Welding Repair of Titanium Condensate (Tie Rod)

    Welding Repair of Titanium Condensate (Tie Rod)

  • Welding Promenade Evolves at the Japan International Welding Show 2012

    Welding Promenade Evolves at the Japan International Welding Show 2012

  • Training Dual Certification WE and AWE 2011 Indonesia

    Training Dual Certification WE and AWE 2011 Indonesia

  • Singapore Welding Technology Forum 2013

    Singapore Welding Technology Forum 2013

  • Progress situation for CWCS in each country

    Progress situation for CWCS in each country

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